Principles of ‘Self Gravitation Bio’ (nomenclature given by the Biophysical Society USA in 2008) are outlined1 in life science on astrophysical principles for ‘self gravity’ and ‘mutual gravity’, as if ‘planet within planet’ situation for macromolecules within biological cell, comparable to Moon that maintains its own gravity with seclusion from Earth in the universal field of gravitation. Some promising evidences are presented in support of the conjecture.
1. Bhattacharjee I.R. (2013) Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science. Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN 978-3-659-42698-8. https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details//store/gb/book/978-3-659-42698-8/self-gravity:-the-major-investigation-gap-in-life-science.
Principles of ‘Self Gravitation Bio’ (nomenclature given by the Biophysical Society USA in 2008) are outlined1 in life science on astrophysical principles for ‘self gravity’ and ‘mutual gravity’, as if ‘planet within planet’ situation for macromolecules within biological cell. It can be compared with Moon that maintains its own gravity on seclusion from Earth in the universal field of gravitation. ‘Fluids’ constitute 70-80% of any biomass. Simple dehydration to the tune of 30% with decrease in density of the medium causes life threatening havoc in any organism. Buoyancy is the gravity-opposing thrust of fluids (in liquid or gas). Within self gravitating bio-mass, fluids help to maintain apparent seclusion from external gravity due to buoyant like force or neutral buoyancy. Free fall acceleration due to self gravity (g-value of biomass) that generates independently in such secluded biomass to the tune of ‘nanometer’ per second square to pico or femto level over small distance is quite a significant force for biological micro world and should not be discarded as insignificant comparing g-value of earth, moon being in ‘meter’ per second square.
Position of macromolecules in cell
In gravitating system, core position have highest gravitational load and act as if the entire mass in the sphere of influence would have been concentrated at that point. Potential energy of self gravity compresses living mass in a cell to its centre leading macromolecules like nucleic acid having highest ‘molar mass and density’ to remain in core position and less dense macromolecules like fats and lipids in periphery in cell membrane.
Fig 1. Nucleic acid having highest molar mass and density remain in core position and less dense fats & lipids remain in periphery. On astrophysical principle, this is a universal phenomenon for all gravitating stellar bodies.
Cytoplasmic pulling force is a major driving force for centrosome centration in animal cells. Microtubule-dependent centration of the centrosome is facilitated by microtubules, which grow from the centrosome and span throughout the cytoplasm to find the geometrical center of the region. Mechanical loads are borne by microtubules, which are balanced by tensile forces in contractile elements of the cytoskeleton. Mitotic spindle gets critical positioning at the cell center.Under symmetric cell division, cell size is limited by the physical properties of the cell.
Fig 2. Pictures (GFP tapped proteins in left and under inverted-color in right) showing centralized arrangement of microtubules possibly demonstrating actions of binding potential energy of self gravity towards centrosomes and kinetic energy against such binding energy.
Within bounds of structural membrane, central equilibrium position of the floating macromolecules get subsequently destabilized due to opposing force of inertia and with increase in hydrostatic pressure of compressed fluids. On astrophysical principles, all these evidences are natural.
Fig 3. Pictures (GFP tapped proteins in left and under inverted-color in right) showing action of mutual gravity for symmetric cell division: cytoplasmic pulling force and microtubule-dependent centration of the centrosome.
Fig 4. Pictures (GFP tapped proteins) showing formation of twin centers of mass on decrease in mutual attraction, as if two gravitating bodies, one outside the other’s gravity barrier.
Energy producing organelles away from core
Metabolic energy of biomass works outward as kinetic energy against potential energy of self gravity and planetary gravity. Energy producing organelles like chloroplast, mitochondria are always found little away from central position in a cell to avoid central load.
Fig 5.Kinetic Energy producing organelles away from central axis
Human thoracic diaphragm and dome shape arc
In living body, anabolism (build-up) and catabolism (break-down) through various process including photosynthesis and respiration respectively result in a constant ‘change of masses’ per unit volume that can upshot contraction and relaxation alternately on astrophysical principles. Gravitational contraction and outward kinetic metabolic energy against it- are the twin process that characterizes and distinguishes living organism from non-living matter. Dome shape arc structure and movement of human thoracic diaphragm may be cited as example wherein constant angle between radius from the common centre and tangents over intercepted arc is maintained. Here potential energy of self gravity contracts its dome shape structure. The inertia attempts to bring back contracting surface to original position. Kinetic energy of metabolism works against it, thereby, allowing the dome shape structure to relax. Unbalanced forces causes change in motion in a curved surface in speeding up and slowing down. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is therefore primarily involved in such internal activity against self gravity.
Fig 7. Self gravity versus earth’s gravity: Dome shape arc structure and movement of human thoracic diaphragm is an example wherein constant angle between radius from the common centre and tangents over intercepted arc is maintained. Contraction and relaxation of muscle on the other hand is an example of working against earth’s gravity.
Logarithmic spiral phenomena develop in various living creatures like snail, snake and others. Logarithmic spiral phenomena has the unique geometrical property of maintaining a constant angle between radius from centre and tangent from curvature at any point of the arc. Magnitude of potential energy of self gravity, as common in any gravitating body, goes on decreasing from the core to the periphery whereas higher magnitude of outward kinetic energy could make radius of curvature lengthened.
Fig 6. Logarithmic spiral phenomena: Geometrical property of maintaining a constant angle between radius from centre and tangent from curvature at any point of the arc. Magnitude of potential energy of self gravity, as common in any gravitating body, goes on decreasing from the core to the periphery whereas higher magnitude of outward kinetic energy could make radius of curvature lengthened.
Agarose gel and concentrated gravitational load
Size and shape of the cell depend on the external biophysical forces. Cells exposed to microgravity get more rounding, loss of gravity-dependent convection, negligible hydro-dynamic shear and lack of sedimentation. Mediums like sponge, agarose gel provides mechanical rigidity in order to withstand compressibility or bulk modulus (substance’s resistance) of the stress applied from own weight (effective stress) and from external load (net stress) in a cell or group of cells. The agarose gel is a cross-linked matrix that is some what like a three-dimensional mesh or screen.When boiled agarose cools,it forms a loose molecular net resembling a sponge with required mechanical rigidity in soft porous texture.The pores in the gel matrix are filled by the liquid phase.Buoyant like force of the liquid is thus augmented by mechanical rigidity of the surrounding structure.Thus apart from other known advantages,final agarose gel gets the ability to withstand compressibility and allows the positioned biomass to feel less stressed under concentrated gravitational load.
Fig 8. Final cross linked gel structure matrix of agarose allows effective stress distribution of concentrated gravitational load
Amniotic fluid index (AFI)
The “single deepest pocket”, for instance, as calculated by ultrasonograph technique for amniotic fluid index (AFI) for fetal well-being, in fact measures volume force (force being a function of the volume).
Fig 9. Measurement of the largest vertical pocket through Amniotic fluid index (AFI)
The Pascal’s law invites the presence of entity of two bodies; first one is to dip on the other and pressure by it is to be applied to the enclosed liquid to express in transmitting equally to every part of the liquid. In an equivalent situation, for example, brain exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight, which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Theactualmass of thehuman brain isabout 1400 grams;however,thenetweight of thebrain suspendedin theCSFunderneutralbuoyancyisequivalenttoamassof 25grams i.e. what is 56 gm in live human body will appear to be 1 gram only under neutral buoyant condition of the brain. Similarly bloodcellsare suspendedin afluidcalledbloodplasma,whichismainly composedofwater andamixtureof otherdissolved substances,orsolutesapartfromhormones, vitamins,aminoacids,andantibodies. Bloodplasmahas a density of approximately1.025kg/l with 80% higher in glucose concentration than cerebrospinalfluid(CSF). Internal gravitational dynamics of biomass can be felt on drawing appropriate prototype as gravity is the force that helps to stabilize the central equilibrium position of the inner spherical core of mass.
The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is a ratio of the size (i.e., volume) of the nucleus of a cell to the size of the cytoplasm of that cell. The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio indicates maturity of a cell, because as a cell matures the size of its nucleus generally decreases. Ratio is fairly constant for a particular cell type. As per self gravitation bio, maturity means an increase in mass with increase in density. More the mass with increase in density more would be the squeezing action, as per classical gravitational law. Self gravitational pressure acting inwards could squeeze fluids and gas out of the surface. Such squeezing action would be maximum at the nucleus, as if a core segment in a self gravitating body. An increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is commonly associated with precancerous dysplasia as well as with malignant cells. For example, “blast” forms of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and mega karyocytes start with an N:C ratio of 4:1, which decreases as they mature to 2:1 or even 1:1. In anuclear cells, decrease is not spectacular in mature thrombocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes. It is either 3:1 ratio or may retain original 4:1 ratio. On correcting cytoplsmic density with addition of hypertonic, isotonic or isotonic normal saline and on manipulating self gravitating environment, one can regulate nuclear cytoplasmic ratio.
Fig 10. Maturity means an increase in mass with increase in density. More the mass with increase in density more would be the squeezing action, as per classical gravitational law. Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio indicates maturity of a cell, because as a cell matures the size of its nucleus generally decreases.
A single cell cannot survive in isolated way, unless it is anchored by inertia. A minimal inertial mass is required for survival. In plant tissue culture, unless a callus (“explants”) of say above 500 mg or suspension of cultures of say, 3-4 cubic centimeters (in terms of PCV – packed cell volume) is used, it is difficult to maintain continuity of life and growth from individual cells. Similarly in the final volume for cell culture, maintaining cell density as low as 3 x 105 to high of more than 10–15x 106 cells/ml of inoculums are required. As biomass possesses both gravity and inertia, it has the characteristic that it can act as anchor as if entire biomass is concentrated at the centre or at the equilibrium point. Thus after seclusion, unless a biomass is anchored or pivoted in a steady state condition through the action of inertia, attainment of accelerated condition would be difficult. This is similar to frictional force (force resisting the relative motion of two surfaces in contact) between feet and ground in steady state condition required for smooth walking. Mitochondria, a primary energy producer in the cell, constantly change shape, i.e. it remains in motion. Electron transport chain would be away from central core of a self gravitating cell, as the intensity of gravitational energy gets reduced from the core to the periphery when it can be overpowered by electrostatic force.
Fig 11.Gravitational anchor is vital for self gravity. Rolling stone gather no moss.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
‘Mass’ is as measure of gravitational force and it is inversely related to metabolic rate. The metabolic energy is on a tug-of-war between potential gravitational energy and its kinetic energy. Part of mass (say 2/3 to ¾ or 66 to 75%) is expended towards maintaining metabolic rate. On the other hand, 100 percent of the same mass works towards generating self gravitational potential energy. There is thus a huge difference between kinetic (metabolic) and potential (gravitational) energies. Fortunately inertia of gravitational potential energy plays a leveling ground for balancing gravity’s compressive role on putting limitation. When force of gravity and inertia are balanced there will be no change of motion. With such balanced force, motion of the object remains stationary i.e. net force is zero. When metabolic energy is put at the rate of 10-12 to 10-6 kcal/hr, it can move unicellular organisms. It works against both intrinsic and extrinsic gravity. Cold blooded animals can be in motion against self gravity and planetary gravity, when metabolic rate is 10-8 to about 100 kcal/hr. Warm blooded animals do the same work with metabolic rate having less than 100 to 103 kcal/hr. Under secluded condition, due to upward force of fluid, the animal would require less energy compared to energy requirement of same mass in land. Thus presence of metabolic energy can be felt with resting metabolic rate (RMR) for meeting most of the demands on working against self gravity where as physical activity level (PAL) could be mostly to meet demands for working against extrinsic gravitational force.
Fig 12. Why heavier cells grow faster?
Why cell adjust mass-to-volume ratio? As per equation of state, pressure is a constant (K) multiplied by mass density and temperature divided by molecular weight of the materials. Mass density is the amount of mass/volume. Any variation in mass density i.e. mass or volume will alter the equation of state. This could result into different cell type, cell density and cell cycle.
Retardation in percent increase in biological growth
Retardation in percent increase in growth is common to all self-gravitating stellar bodies of the universe, where internal pressure opposes self-gravity. Studies elsewhere showed that cellular growth rate is determined by physical parameters like membrane surface area, pathways and cell size that are prone to be manipulated by a compressive physical force of self gravity. Group of membrane processes including membrane surface area determine growth rate in fast-growing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Nutrient-dependent pathway and cell size controls growth rate in Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium or Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. Therefore in human, at infant stage, there would be higher metabolic energy but lesser gravitational energy. At adult stage, there would be equilibrium between metabolic and gravitational energy. At old age, with accumulation of mass on passage of time there would be lesser metabolic energy and high gravitational energy.
Fig 13. Retardation in percent increase in growth is common to all self-gravitating stellar bodies of the universe; self gravitating biological micro-world cannot remain exception.